Moving a Google Form Between Google Domains

If you are anything like me, you might have a few different Google accounts that you work with on a regular basis. I ran into an issue recently where I spent a fair amount of time creating a Google Form, just to realize I did this while logged in with my personal account rather than my work account. I didn’t really want to redo the work I had done, but when I searched to try to find out how to move the form between accounts I didn’t come up with anything that addressed my situation.

It’s not hard to do, but I figured I’d write it down just in case it happens to you. I stumbled upon the fix just by trying a few things. Assuming this is a new form with no data all you have to do is the following:

  1. Add your second Google account as a Collaborator on the form
  2. Log in to your second Google account, open the form and “Make a copy” of the form

G Suite

That’s it, now you have a copy of the form in your second Google account. Of course if you had already collected some data on the first form you would want to copy that Sheet and put it in your second Google account as well and attach the form to that copy of the data. Be sure to delete the old form so you don’t accidentally use the old form.

Moving a Google Form Between Google Domains

Step-by-Step: How to Trigger an Email Alert when a Specific Windows Service Starts or Stops on Windows Server 2016

Introduction

In my last post. Step-by-Step: How to Trigger an Email Alert from a Windows Event that Includes the Event Details using Windows Server 2016, I showed you how to send an email alert based upon specific Windows EventIDs being logged in a Windows Event Log. While that works great for most events it is not ideal if you want to be notified when a specific Windows Service starts or stops.

When a Windows Service starts or stops an EventID 7036 from the Source “Service Control Manager” is logged in the Windows System Log. Now we could simply set up a trigger to send an email whenever that EventID is logged as I described in my previous post, however you might not want to receive an email when EVERY Windows Service starts or stops.

To get a little more specific we will have to edit the XML data associated with the Windows Event Filter when we set up the trigger to look a little deeper at the Event Properties and filter on the EventData that is only shown when you view the XML View on the Details tab of a Windows Event.

This work was verified on Windows Server 2016, but I suspect it should work on Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2019 as well. If you get it working on any other platforms please comment and let us know if you had to change anything.

Step 1 – Write a Powershell Script

The first thing that you need to do is write a Powershell script that when run can send an email. While researching this I discovered many ways to accomplish this task, so what I’m about to show you is just one way, but feel free to experiment and use what is right for your environment.

In my lab I do not run my own SMTP server, so I had to write a script that could leverage my Gmail account. You will see in my Powershell script the password to the email account that authenticates to the SMTP server is in plain text. If you are concerned that someone may have access to your script and discover your password then you will want to encrypt your credentials. Gmail requires and SSL connection so your password should be safe on the wire, just like any other email client.

Here is an example of a Powershell script that when used in conjunction with Task Scheduler which will send an email alert automatically when any specified Event is logged in the Windows Event Log. In my environment I saved this script to C:\Alerts\ServiceAlert.ps1

$filter="*[System[EventID=7036] and EventData[Data='SIOS DataKeeper']]"
$A = Get-WinEvent -LogName System -MaxEvents 1 -FilterXPath $filter
$Message = $A.Message
$EventID = $A.Id
$MachineName = $A.MachineName
$Source = $A.ProviderName


$EmailFrom = "sios@medfordband.com"
$EmailTo = "sios@medfordband.com"
$Subject ="Alert From $MachineName"
$Body = "EventID: $EventID`nSource: $Source`nMachineName: $MachineName `n$Message"
$SMTPServer = "smtp.gmail.com"
$SMTPClient = New-Object Net.Mail.SmtpClient($SmtpServer, 587)
$SMTPClient.EnableSsl = $true
$SMTPClient.Credentials = New-Object System.Net.NetworkCredential("sios@medfordband.com", "MySMTPP@55w0rd");
$SMTPClient.Send($EmailFrom, $EmailTo, $Subject, $Body)

An example of an email generated from that Powershell script looks like this.

Service Alert Email

You probably noticed that this Powershell script uses the Get-WinEvent cmdlet to grab the most recent Event Log entry based upon the LogName, EventID and EventData specified. It then parses that event and assigns the EventID, Source, MachineName and Message to variables that will be used to compose the email. You will see that the LogName, EventID and EventData specified is the same as what you will specify when you set up the Scheduled Task in Step 2.

While EventID, LogName are probably familiar to you, EventData may not be as familiar. To see the EventData associated with a particular Event you will need to open the Event in Event Viewer, look at the Details tab and then select XML view. From the XML view you can see all the data included with an event. Near the bottom of the XML you will see an array of data called <EventData>. Within there you will find additional Event Data stored as parameters. As show below, in the “param1” we will find the name of the Service being that either stopped or started.

Event Data

Step 2 – Set Up a Scheduled Task

In Task Scheduler Create a Task as show in the following screen shots.

  1. Create Task
    Create TaskMake sure the task is set to Run whether the user is logged on or not.
    Service - General
  2.  On the Triggers tab choose New to create a Trigger that will begin the task “On an Event”. In my example I will be creating an event that triggers any time DataKeeper (extmirr) logs an important event to the System log.
    Create Task 3
    Create a custom event and New Event Filter as shown below…

    Create Task - Trigger

    For my trigger you can start my setting up a trigger that monitors 7036 as I describe in my previous article. However, the Filter GUI interface does not allow us to specify the Service Name stored in Param1 of EventData as I described earlier. In order to monitor for just the specific service we are interested in we will need to edit the XML directly as shown below.

    Service - XML
    If you rather just skip straight to the chase feel free to copy my XML below and replace ‘SIOS DataKeeper’ with the event data stored in param1 of the Event you want to monitor.

    <QueryList>
    <Query Id="0" Path="System">
    <Select Path="System">*[System[(Level=4 or Level=0) and (EventID=7036)]] and *[EventData[Data[1]='SIOS DataKeeper']]</Select>
    </Query>
    </QueryList>
  3. Once the Event Trigger is configured, you will need to configure the Action that occurs when the event is run. In our case we are going to run the Powershell script that we created in Step 1.
    Actions - 2

    Service - Task

  4. The default Condition parameters should be sufficient.
    Conditions - 1
  5. And finally, on the Settings tab make sure you allow the task to be run on demand and to “Queue a new instance” if a task is already running.

    2018-10-28_00-17-27

Step 3 (if necessary) – Fix the Microsoft-Windows-DistributedCOM Event ID: 10016 Error

In theory, if you did everything correctly you should now start receiving emails any time one of the events you are monitoring gets logged in the event log.  However, I ran into a weird permission issue on one of my servers that I had to address before everything worked. I’m not sure if you will run into this issue, but just in case here is the fix.

In my case when I manually triggered the event, or if I ran the Powershell script directly, everything worked as expected and I received an email. However, if one of the EventIDs being monitored was logged into the event log it would not result in an email being sent. The only clue I had was the Event ID: 10016 that was logged in my Systems event log each time I expected the Task Trigger to detect a logged event.

Log Name: System
Source: Microsoft-Windows-DistributedCOM
Date: 10/27/2018 5:59:47 PM
Event ID: 10016
Task Category: None
Level: Error
Keywords: Classic
User: DATAKEEPER\dave
Computer: sql1.datakeeper.local
Description:
The application-specific permission settings do not grant Local Activation permission for the COM Server application with CLSID 
{D63B10C5-BB46-4990-A94F-E40B9D520160}
and APPID 
{9CA88EE3-ACB7-47C8-AFC4-AB702511C276}
to the user DATAKEEPER\dave SID (S-1-5-21-25339xxxxx-208xxx580-6xxx06984-500) from address LocalHost (Using LRPC) running in the application container Unavailable SID (Unavailable). This security permission can be modified using the Component Services administrative tool.

Many of the Google search results for that error indicate that the error is benign and include instructions on how to suppress the error instead of fixing it. However, I was pretty sure this error was the cause of my current failure to be able to send an email alert from a Scheduled Event that was triggered from a monitored Event Log entry, so I needed to fix it.

After much searching, I stumbled upon this newsgroup discussion.  The response from Marc Whittlesey pointed me in the right direction. This is what he wrote…

There are 2 registry keys you have to set permissions before you go to the DCOM Configuration in Component services: CLSID key and APPID key.

I suggest you to follow some steps to fix issue:

1. Press Windows + R keys and type regedit and press Enter.
2. Go to HKEY_Classes_Root\CLSID\*CLSID*.
3. Right click on it then select permission.
4. Click Advance and change the owner to administrator. Also click the box that will appear below the owner line.
5. Apply full control.
6. Close the tab then go to HKEY_LocalMachine\Software\Classes\AppID\*APPID*.
7. Right click on it then select permission.
8. Click Advance and change the owner to administrators.
9. Click the box that will appear below the owner line.
10. Click Apply and grant full control to Administrators.
11. Close all tabs and go to Administrative tool.
12. Open component services.
13. Click Computer, click my computer, and then click DCOM.
14. Look for the corresponding service that appears on the error viewer.
15. Right click on it then click properties.
16. Click security tab then click Add User, Add System then apply.
17. Tick the Activate local box.

So use the relevant keys here and the DCOM Config should give you access to the greyed out areas:
CLSID {D63B10C5-BB46-4990-A94F-E40B9D520160}

APPID {9CA88EE3-ACB7-47C8-AFC4-AB702511C276}

I was able to follow Steps 1-15 pretty much verbatim. However, when I got to Step 16 I really couldn’t tell exactly what he wanted me to do. At first I granted the DATAKEEPER\dave user account Full Control to the RuntimeBroker, but that didn’t fix things. Eventually I just selected “Use Default” on all three permissions and that fixed the issue.

RuntimeBroker
I’m not sure how or why this happened, but I figured I better write it all down in case it happens again because it took me a while to figure it out.

Step 4 – Automating the Deployment

If you need to enable the same alerts on multiple systems you can simply export your Task to an XML file and Import it on your other systems.

ExportImport

Or even better yet, automate the Import as part of your build process through a Powershell script after making your XML file available on a file share as shown in the following example.

PS C:\> Register-ScheduledTask -Xml (get-content '\\myfileshare\tasks\DataKeeperAlerts.xml' | out-string) -TaskName "DataKeeper Service Alerts" -User datakeeper\dave -Password MyDomainP@55W0rd –Force

 

In Summary

Hopefully what I have provided will give you everything you need to start receiving alert notification emails on whichever Windows Services keep you up at night.

This concludes my series on configuring email alerts. In this series I covered covered configuring alerts based on Perfmon counters, Event Log Entries and in this article Windows Service Start and Stop events. Of course you can extend these Powershell scripts described in these articles to do more than just send emails. Many alerts or unexpected service stoppages generally require some remediation, so why not just script out the recovery steps and let the triggered task take care of the issue for you?

Personally I recommend that you invest in SCOM , SolarWinds or some other Enterprise Management System, but if that is not in the cards where you work then these articles can help in a pinch.

Step-by-Step: How to Trigger an Email Alert when a Specific Windows Service Starts or Stops on Windows Server 2016

Step-by-Step: How to Trigger an Email Alert from a Windows Event that Includes the Event Details using Windows Server 2016

Introduction

Setting up an email alert is as simple as creating a Windows Task that is triggered by an Event. You then must specify the action that will occur when that Task is triggered. Since Microsoft has decided to deprecate the “Send an e-mail” option the only choice we have is to Start a Program. In our case that program will be a Powershell script that will collect the Event Log information and parse it so that we can send an email that includes important Log Event details.

This work was verified on Windows Server 2016, but I suspect it should work on Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2019 as well. If you get it working on any other platforms please comment and let us know if you had to change anything.

Step 1 – Write a Powershell Script

The first thing that you need to do is write a Powershell script that when run can send an email. While researching this I discovered many ways to accomplish this task, so what I’m about to show you is just one way, but feel free to experiment and use what is right for your environment.

In my lab I do not run my own SMTP server, so I had to write a script that could leverage my Gmail account. You will see in my Powershell script the password to the email account that authenticates to the SMTP server is in plain text. If you are concerned that someone may have access to your script and discover your password then you will want to encrypt your credentials. Gmail requires and SSL connection so your password should be safe on the wire, just like any other email client.

Here is an example of a Powershell script that when used in conjunction with Task Scheduler which will send an email alert automatically when any specified Event is logged in the Windows Event Log. In my environment I saved this script to C:\Alerts\DataKeeper.ps1

$EventId = 16,20,23,150,219,220

$A = Get-WinEvent -MaxEvents 1  -FilterHashTable @{Logname = "System" ; ID = $EventId}
$Message = $A.Message
$EventID = $A.Id
$MachineName = $A.MachineName
$Source = $A.ProviderName


$EmailFrom = "sios@medfordband.com"
$EmailTo = "sios@medfordband.com"
$Subject ="Alert From $MachineName"
$Body = "EventID: $EventID`nSource: $Source`nMachineName: $MachineName `nMessage: $Message"
$SMTPServer = "smtp.gmail.com"
$SMTPClient = New-Object Net.Mail.SmtpClient($SmtpServer, 587)
$SMTPClient.EnableSsl = $true
$SMTPClient.Credentials = New-Object System.Net.NetworkCredential("sios@medfordband.com", "mySMTPP@55w0rd");
$SMTPClient.Send($EmailFrom, $EmailTo, $Subject, $Body)

An example of an email generated from that Powershell script looks like this.

Email1

You probably noticed that this Powershell script uses the Get-WinEvent cmdlet to grab the most recent Event Log entry based upon the LogName, Source and eventIDs specified. It then parses that event and assigns the EventID, Source, MachineName and Message to variables that will be used to compose the email. You will see that the LogName, Source and eventIDs specified are the same as the ones you will specify when you set up the Scheduled Task in Step 2.

Step 2 – Set Up a Scheduled Task

In Task Scheduler Create a Task as show in the following screen shots.

  1. Create Task
    Create Task

    Make sure the task is set to Run whether the user is logged on or not.
    DataKeeper Alerts

  2.  On the Triggers tab choose New to create a Trigger that will begin the task “On an Event”. In my example I will be creating an event that triggers any time DataKeeper (extmirr) logs an important event to the System log.
    Create Task 3
    Create a custom event and New Event Filter as shown below…

    Create Task - Trigger

    For my trigger I am triggering on commonly monitored SIOS DataKeeper (ExtMirr) EventIDs 16, 20, 23,150,219,220 . You will need to set up your event to trigger on the specific Events that you want to monitor. You can put multiple Triggers in the same Task if you want to be notified about events that come from different logs or sources.

    Edit Event Filter
    Create a New Event Filter

     

  3. Once the Event Trigger is configured, you will need to configure the Action that occurs when the event is run. In our case we are going to run the Powershell script that we created in Step 1.
    Actions - 2

    Edit - Actions

  4. The default Condition parameters should be sufficient.
    Conditions - 1
  5. And finally, on the Settings tab make sure you allow the task to be run on demand and to “Queue a new instance” if a task is already running.

    2018-10-28_00-17-27

Step 3 (if necessary) – Fix the Microsoft-Windows-DistributedCOM Event ID: 10016 Error

In theory, if you did everything correctly you should now start receiving emails any time one of the events you are monitoring gets logged in the event log.  However, I ran into a weird permission issue on one of my servers that I had to address before everything worked. I’m not sure if you will run into this issue, but just in case here is the fix.

In my case when I manually triggered the event, or if I ran the Powershell script directly, everything worked as expected and I received an email. However, if one of the EventIDs being monitored was logged into the event log it would not result in an email being sent. The only clue I had was the Event ID: 10016 that was logged in my Systems event log each time I expected the Task Trigger to detect a logged event.

Log Name: System
Source: Microsoft-Windows-DistributedCOM
Date: 10/27/2018 5:59:47 PM
Event ID: 10016
Task Category: None
Level: Error
Keywords: Classic
User: DATAKEEPER\dave
Computer: sql1.datakeeper.local
Description:
The application-specific permission settings do not grant Local Activation permission for the COM Server application with CLSID 
{D63B10C5-BB46-4990-A94F-E40B9D520160}
and APPID 
{9CA88EE3-ACB7-47C8-AFC4-AB702511C276}
to the user DATAKEEPER\dave SID (S-1-5-21-25339xxxxx-208xxx580-6xxx06984-500) from address LocalHost (Using LRPC) running in the application container Unavailable SID (Unavailable). This security permission can be modified using the Component Services administrative tool.

Many of the Google search results for that error indicate that the error is benign and include instructions on how to suppress the error instead of fixing it. However, I was pretty sure this error was the cause of my current failure to be able to send an email alert from a Scheduled Event that was triggered from a monitored Event Log entry, so I needed to fix it.

After much searching, I stumbled upon this newsgroup discussion.  The response from Marc Whittlesey pointed me in the right direction. This is what he wrote…

There are 2 registry keys you have to set permissions before you go to the DCOM Configuration in Component services: CLSID key and APPID key.

I suggest you to follow some steps to fix issue:

1. Press Windows + R keys and type regedit and press Enter.
2. Go to HKEY_Classes_Root\CLSID\*CLSID*.
3. Right click on it then select permission.
4. Click Advance and change the owner to administrator. Also click the box that will appear below the owner line.
5. Apply full control.
6. Close the tab then go to HKEY_LocalMachine\Software\Classes\AppID\*APPID*.
7. Right click on it then select permission.
8. Click Advance and change the owner to administrators.
9. Click the box that will appear below the owner line.
10. Click Apply and grant full control to Administrators.
11. Close all tabs and go to Administrative tool.
12. Open component services.
13. Click Computer, click my computer, and then click DCOM.
14. Look for the corresponding service that appears on the error viewer.
15. Right click on it then click properties.
16. Click security tab then click Add User, Add System then apply.
17. Tick the Activate local box.

So use the relevant keys here and the DCOM Config should give you access to the greyed out areas:
CLSID {D63B10C5-BB46-4990-A94F-E40B9D520160}

APPID {9CA88EE3-ACB7-47C8-AFC4-AB702511C276}

I was able to follow Steps 1-15 pretty much verbatim. However, when I got to Step 16 I really couldn’t tell exactly what he wanted me to do. At first I granted the DATAKEEPER\dave user account Full Control to the RuntimeBroker, but that didn’t fix things. Eventually I just selected “Use Default” on all three permissions and that fixed the issue.

RuntimeBroker
I’m not sure how or why this happened, but I figured I better write it all down in case it happens again because it took me a while to figure it out.

Step 4 – Automating the Deployment

If you need to enable the same alerts on multiple systems you can simply export your Task to an XML file and Import it on your other systems.

ExportImport

Or even better yet, automate the Import as part of your build process through a Powershell script after making your XML file available on a file share as shown in the following example.

PS C:\> Register-ScheduledTask -Xml (get-content '\\myfileshare\tasks\DataKeeperAlerts.xml' | out-string) -TaskName "DataKeeperAlerts" -User datakeeper\dave -Password MyDomainP@55W0rd –Force

 

In Summary

Hopefully what I have provided will give you everything you need to start receiving alert notification emails on whichever Event Log entries keep you up at night.

In my next post I will show you how to be notified when a specified Service either starts or stops. Of course you could just monitor for EventID 7036 from Service Control Monitor, but that would notify you whenever ANY service starts or stops. We will need to dig a little deeper to make sure we get notified only when the services we care about start or stop.

Step-by-Step: How to Trigger an Email Alert from a Windows Event that Includes the Event Details using Windows Server 2016

Azure Outage Post-Mortem Part 3

My previous blog posts, Azure Outage Post-Mortem – Part 1 and Azure Outage Post-Mortem Part 2,made some assumptions based upon limited information coming from blog posts and twitter. I just attended a session at Ignite which gave a little more clarity as to what actually happened. Sometime tomorrow you should be able to view the session for yourself.

BRK3075 – Preparing for the unexpected: Anatomy of an Azure outage

The official Root Cause Analysis they said will be published soon, but in the meantime here are some tidbits of information gleaned from the session.

The outage was NOT caused by a lightning strike as previously reported. Instead, due to the nature of the storm there were electrical storm sags and swells, which locked out a chiller plant in the 1st datacenter. During this first outage they were able to recover the chiller quickly with no noticeable impact. Shortly thereafter, there was a second outage at a second datacenter which was not recovered properly, which began an unfortunate series of events.

During this 2nd outage, Microsoft states that “Engineers didn’t triage alerts correctly – chiller plant recovery was not prioritized”. There were numerous alerts being triggered at this time, and unfortunately the chiller being offline did not receive the priority it should have. The RCA as to why that happened is still being investigated.

Microsoft states that of course redundant chiller systems are in place. However, the cooling systems were not set to automatically failover. Recently installed new equipment had not been fully tested, so it was set to manual mode until testing had been completed.

After 45 minutes the ambient cooling failed, hardware shutdown, air handlers shut down because they thought there was a fire, and staff had been evacuated due to the false fire alarm. During this time temperature in the data center was increasing and some hardware was not shut down properly, causing damage to some storage and networking.

After manually resetting the chillers and opening the air handlers the temperature began to return to normal. It took about 3 hours and 29 minutes before they had a complete picture of the status of the datacenter.

The biggest issue was there was damage to storage. Microsoft’s primary concern is data protection, so short of the enter datacenter sinking into a sinkhole or a meteor strike taking out the datacenter, Microsoft will work to recover data to ensure no data loss. This of course took some time, which extend the overall length of the outage. The good news is that no customer data was lost, the bad news is that it seemed like it took 24-48 hours for things to return to normal, based upon what I read on Twitter from customers complaining about the prolonged outage.

Everyone expected that this outage would impact customers hosted in the South Central Region, but what they did not expect was that the outage would have an impact outside of that region. In the session, Microsoft discusses some of the extended reach of the outage.

Azure Service Manager (ASM) – This controls Azure “Classic” resources, AKA, pre-ARM resources. Anyone relying on ASM could have been impacted. It wasn’t clear to me why this happened, but it appears that South Central Region hosts some important components of that service which became unavailable.

Visual Studio Team Service (VSTS) – Again, it appears that many resources that support this service are hosted in the South Central Region. This outage is described in great detail by Buck Hodges (@tfsbuck), Director of Engineering, Azure DevOps this blog post.

Postmortem: VSTS 4 September 2018

Azure Active Directory (AAD) – When the South Central region failed, AAD did what it was designed to due and started directing authentication requests to other regions. As the East Coast started to wake up and online, authentication traffic started picking up. Now normally AAD would handle this increase in traffic through autoscaling, but the autoscaling has a dependency on ASM, which of course was offline. Without the ability to autoscale, AAD was not able to handle the increase in authentication requests. Exasperating the situation was a bug in Office clients which made them have very aggressive retry logic, and no backoff logic. This additional authentication traffic eventually brought AAD to its knees.

They ran out of time to discuss this further during the Ignite session, but one feature that they will be introducing will be giving users the ability to failover Storage Accounts manually in the future. So in the case where recovery time objective (RTO) is more important than (RPO) the user will have the ability to recover their asynchronously replicated geo-redundant storage in an alternate data center should Microsoft experience another extended outage in the future.

Until that time, you will have to rely on other replication solutions such as SIOS DataKeeper Azure Site Recovery, or application specific replication solutions which give you the ability to replicate data across regions and put the ability to enact your disaster recovery plan in your control.

 

 

Azure Outage Post-Mortem Part 3

Azure Outage Post-Mortem Part 2

My previous blog post says that Cloud-to-Cloud or Hybrid-Cloud would give you the most isolation from just about any issue a CSP could encounter. However, in this particular failure had Availability Zones been available in the South Central region most of the downtime caused by this natural disaster could have been avoided. Microsoft published a Preliminary RCA of the September 4th South Central Outage.

The most important part of that whole summary is as follows…

“Despite onsite redundancies, there are scenarios in which a datacenter cooling failure can impact customer workloads in the affected datacenter.”

What does that mean to you? If your applications all run in the same datacenter you are susceptible to the same type of outage in the future. In Microsoft’s defense, this really shouldn’t be news to you as this has always been true whether you run in Azure, AWS, Google or even your own datacenter. Failure to plan ahead with data replication to a different datacenter and a plan in place to quickly recover your applications in those datacenters in the event of a disaster is simply a lack of planning on your part.

While Microsoft doesn’t publish exact Availability Zone locations, if you believe this map published here you could guess that they are probably anywhere from a 2-10 miles apart from each other.

Azure Datacenters.png

In all but the most extreme cases, replicating data across Availability Zones should be sufficient for data protection. Some applications such as SQL Server have built in replication technology, but for a broad range of applications, operating systems and data types you will want to investigate block level replication SANless cluster solutions. SANless cluster solutions have traditionally been used for multisite clusters, but the same technology can also be used in the cloud across Availability Zones, Regions, or Hybrid-Cloud for high availability and disaster recovery.

Implementing a SANless cluster that spans Availability Zones, whether it is Azure, AWS or Google, is a pretty simple process given the right tools. Here are a few resources to help get you started.

Step-by-Step: Configuring a File Server Cluster in Azure that Spans Availability Zones

How to Build a SANless SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance in Google Cloud Platform

MS SQL Server v.Next on Linux with Replication and High Availability #Azure #Cloud #Linux

Deploying Microsoft SQL Server 2014 Failover Clusters in #Azure Resource Manager (ARM)

SANless SQL Server Clusters in AWS

SANless Linux Cluster in AWS Quick Start

If you are in Azure you may also want to consider Azure Site Recovery (ASR). ASR lets you replicate the entire VM from one Azure region to another region. ASR will replicate your VMs in real-time and allow you to do a non-disruptive DR test whenever you like. It supports most versions of Windows and Linux and is relatively easy to set up.

You can also create replication jobs that have “Multi-VM Consistency”, meaning that servers that must be recovered from the exact same point in time can be put together in this consistency group and they will have the exact same recovery point. What this means is if you wanted to build a SANless cluster with DataKeeper in a single region for high availability you have two options for DR. One is you could extend your SANless cluster to a node in a different region, or else you could simply use ASR to replicate both nodes in a consistency group.

asr

The trade off with ASR is that the RPO and RTO is not as good as you will get with a SANless multi-site cluster, but it is easy to configure and works with just about any application. Just be careful, if your application exceeds 10 MBps in disk write activity on a regular basis ASR will not be able to keep up. Also, clusters based on Storage Spaces Direct cannot be replicated with ASR and in general lack a good DR strategy when used in Azure.

For a while after Managed Disks were released ASR did not fully support them until about a year later. Full support for Managed Disks was a big hurdle for many people looking to use ASR. Fortunately since about February of 2018 ASR fully supports Managed Disks. However, there is another problem that was just introduced.

With the introduction of Availability Zones ASR is once again caught behind the times as they currently don’t support VMs that have been deployed in Availability Zones.

2018-09-25_00-10-24
Support matrix for replicating from one Azure region to another

I went ahead and tried it anyway. I seemed to be able to configure replication and was able to do a test failover.

ASR-and-AZ
I used ASR to replicate SQL1 and SQL3 from Central to East US 2 and did a test failover. Other than not placing the VMs in AZs in East US 2 it seems to work.

I’m hoping to find out more about this limitation at the Ignite conference. I don’t think this limitation is as critical as the Managed Disk limitation was, just because Availability Zones aren’t widely available yet. So hopefully ASR will pick up support for Availability Zones as other regions light up Availability Zones and they are more widely adopted.

 

 

Azure Outage Post-Mortem Part 2

Azure Outage Post-Mortem – Part 1

The first official Post-Mortems are starting to come out of Microsoft in regards to the Azure Outage that happened last week. While this first post-mortem addresses the Azure DevOps outage specifically (previously known as Visual Studio Team Service, or VSTS), it gives us some additional insight into the breadth and depth of the outage, confirms the cause of the outage, and gives us some insight into the challenges Microsoft faced in getting things back online quickly. It also hints at some some features/functionality Microsoft may consider pursuing to handle this situation better in the future.

As I mentioned in my previous article, features such as the new Availability Zones being rolled out in Azure, might have minimized the impact of this outage. In the post-mortem, Microsoft confirms what I previously said.

The primary solution we are pursuing to improve handling datacenter failures is Availability Zones, and we are exploring the feasibility of asynchronous replication.

Until Availability Zones are rolled out across more regions the only disaster recovery options you have are cross-region, hybrid-cloud or even cross-cloud asynchronous replication. Software based #SANless clustering solutions available today will enable such configurations, providing a very robust RTO and RPO, even when replicating great distances.

When you use SaaS/PaaS solutions you are really depending on the Cloud Service Provider (CSPs) to have an iron clad HA/DR solution in place. In this case, it seems as if a pretty significant deficiency was exposed and we can only hope that it leads all CSPs to take a hard look at their SaaS/PaaS offerings and address any HA/DR gaps that might exist. Until then, it is incumbent upon the consumer to understand the risks and do what they can to mitigate the risks of extended outages, or just choose not to use PaaS/SaaS until the risks are addressed.

The post-mortem really gets to the root of the issue…what do you value more, RTO or RPO?

I fundamentally do not want to decide for customers whether or not to accept data loss. I’ve had customers tell me they would take data loss to get a large team productive again quickly, and other customers have told me they do not want any data loss and would wait on recovery for however long that took.

It will be impossible for a CSP to make that decision for a customer. I can’t see a CSP ever deciding to lose customer data, unless the original data is just completely lost and unrecoverable. In that case, a near real-time async replica is about as good as you are going to get in terms of RPO in an unexpected failure.

However, was this outage really unexpected and without warning? Modern satellite imagery and improvements in weather forecasting probably gave fair warning that there was going to be significant weather related events in the area.

With hurricane Florence bearing down on the Southeast US as I write this post, I certainly hope if your data center is in the path of the hurricane you are taking proactive measures to gracefully move your workloads out of the impacted region. The benefit of a proactive disaster recovery vs a reactive disaster recovery are numerous, including no data loss, ample time to address unexpected issues, and managing human resources such that employees can worry about taking care of their families, rather than spending the night at a keyboard trying to put the pieces back together again.

Again, enacting a proactive disaster recovery would be a hard decision for a CSP to make on behalf of all their customers, as planned migrations across regions will incur some amount of downtime. This decision will have to be put in the hands of the customer.

Slide 2.png
Hurricane Florence Satellite Image taken from the new GOES-16 Satellite, courtesy of Tropical Tidbits

So what can you do to protect your business critical applications and data? As I discussed in my previous article, cross-region, cross-cloud or hybrid-cloud models with software based #SANless cluster solutions are going to go a long way to address your HA/DR concerns, with an excellent RTO and RPO for cloud based IaaS deployments. Instead of application specific solutions, software based, block level volume replication solutions such SIOS DataKeeper and SIOS Protection Suite replicate all data, providing a data protection solution for both Linux and Windows platforms.

My oldest son just started his undergrad degree in Meteorology at Rutgers University. Can you imagine a day when artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) will be used to consume weather related data from NOAA to trigger a planned disaster recovery migration, two days before the storm strikes? I think I just found a perfect topic for his Master’s thesis. Or better yet, have him and his smart friends at the WeatherWatcher LLC get funding for a tech startup that applies AI and ML to weather related data to control proactive disaster recovery events.

I think we are just at the cusp of  IT analytics solutions that apply advanced machine-learning technology to cut the time and effort you need to ensure delivery of your critical application services. SIOS iQ is one of the solutions leading the way in that field.

Batten down the hatches and get ready, Hurricane season is just starting and we are already in for a wild ride. If you would like to discuss your HA/DR strategy reach out to me on Twitter @daveberm.

Azure Outage Post-Mortem – Part 1

Lightning Never Strikes Twice: Surviving the #Azure Cloud Outage

Yesterday morning I opened my Twitter feed to find that many people were impacted by an Azure outage. When I tried to access the resource page that described the outage and the current resources impacted even that page was unavailable. @AzureSupport was providing updates via Twitter.

The original update from @AzureSupport came in at 7:12 AM EDT

Azure Outage 2

Looking back on the Twitter feed it seems as if the problem initially began an hour or two before that.

Azure Support 10

It quickly became apparent that the outages had a wider spread impact than just the SOUTH CENTRAL US region as originally reported. It seems as if services that relied on Azure Active Directory could have been impacted as well and customers trying to provision new subscriptions were having issues.

Azure 11

And 24 hours later the problem has not been completely resolved and it according to the last update this morning…

Azure Outage 1

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So what could you have done to minimize the impact of this outage? No one can blame Microsoft for a natural disaster such as a lightning strike. But at the end of the day if your only disaster recovery plan is to call, tweet and email Microsoft until the issue is resolved, you just received a rude awakening. IT IS UP TO YOU to ensure you have covered all the bases when it comes to your disaster recovery plan.

While the dust is still settling on exactly what was impacted and what customers could have done to minimize the downtime, here are some of my initial thoughts.

Availability Sets (Fault Domains/Update Domains) – In this scenario, even if you built Failover Clusters, or leveraged Azure Load Balancers and Availability Sets, it seems the entire region went offline so you still would have been out of luck. While it is still recommended to leverage Availability Sets, especially for planned downtime, in this case you still would have been offline.

Availability Zones – While not available in the SOUTH CENTRAL US region yet, it seems that the concept of Availability Zones being rolled out in Azure could have minimized the impact of the outage. Assuming the lightning strike only impacted one datacenter, the other datacenter in the other Availability Zone should have remained operational. However, the outages of the other non-regional services such as Azure Active Directory (AAD) seems to have impacted multiple regions, so I don’t think Availability Zones would have isolated you completely.

Global Load Balancers, Cross Region Failover Clusters, etc. – Whether you are building SANLess clusters that cross regions, or using global load balancers to spread the load across multiple regions, you may have minimized the impact of the outage in SOUTH CENTRAL US, but you may have still been susceptible to the AAD outage.

Hybrid-Cloud, Cross Cloud – About the only way you could guarantee resiliency in a cloud wide failure scenario such as the one Azure just experienced is to have a DR plan that includes having realtime replication of data to a target outside of your primary cloud provider and a plan in place to bring applications online quickly in this other location. These two locations should be entirely independent and should not rely on services from your primary location to be available, such as AAD. The DR location could be another cloud provider, in this case AWS or Google Cloud Platform seem like logical alternatives, or it could be your own datacenter, but that kind of defeats the purpose of running in the cloud in the first place.

Software as a Service – While Software as service such as Azure Active Directory (ADD), Azure SQL Database (Database-as-Service) or one of the many SaaS offerings from any of the cloud providers can seem enticing, you really need to plan for the worst case scenario. Because you are trusting a business critical application to a single vendor you may have very little control in terms of DR options that includes recovery OUTSIDE of the current cloud service provider. I don’t have any words of wisdom here other than investigate your DR options before implementing any SaaS service, and if recovery outside of the cloud is not an option than think long and hard before you sign-up for that service. Minimally make the business stake owners aware that if the cloud service provider has a really bad day and that service is offline there may be nothing you can do about it other than call and complain.

I think in the very near future you will start to hear more and more about cross cloud availability and people leveraging solutions like SIOS DataKeeper to build robust HA and DR strategies that cross cloud providers. Truly cross cloud or hybrid cloud models are the only way to truly insulate yourself from most conceivable cloud outages.

If you were impacted from this latest outage I’d love to hear from you. Tell me what went down, how long you were down, and what you did to recover. What are you planning to do so that in the future your experience is better?

Lightning Never Strikes Twice: Surviving the #Azure Cloud Outage