Google first reported an “Issue” on Jun 2, 2019 at 12:25 PDT. As is now common in any type of disaster, reports of this outage first appeared on social media. It seems now the most reliable place to get any type of information early in a disaster is social media.
Many services that rely on Google Compute Engine were impacted. With three teenage kids at home, I first knew something was up when all three kids emerged from their caves, aka, bedrooms, at the same time with a worried look on their faces. Snapchat, Youtube and Discord were all offline!
They must have thought that surely this was the first sign of the apocalypse. I reassured them that this was not the beginning of the new dark ages and that maybe they should go outside and do some yard work instead. That scared them back to reality and they quickly scurried away to find something else to occupy their time.
All kidding aside, there were many services being reported as down, or only available in certain areas. The dust is still settling on the cause, breadth and scope of the outage, but it certainly seems that the outage was pretty significant in size and scope, impacting many customers and services including Gmail and other G-Suite services, Vimeo and more.
While we wait for the official root cause analysis on this latest Google Compute Engine outage, Google reported “high levels of network congestion in the eastern USA” caused the downtime. We will have to wait to see what they determine caused the network issues. Was it human error, cyber-attack, hardware failure, or something else?
Were you prepared?
As I wrote during the last major cloud outage, if you are running business critical workloads in the cloud, regardless of the cloud service provider, it is incumbent upon you to plan for the inevitable outage. The multi-day Azure outage of Sept 4th, 2018 was related to a failure of the secondary HVAC system to kick in during a power surge related to an electrical storm. While the failure was just within a single datacenter, the outage exposed multiple services that had dependencies on this single datacenter, making that datacenter itself a single point of failure.
Leveraging the cloud’s infrastructure, you can minimize your risks by continuously replicating critical data between Availability Zones, Regions or even cloud service providers. In addition to data protection, having a procedure in place to rapidly recover business critical applications is an essential part of any disaster recovery plan. There are various replication and recovery options available, from services provided by the cloud vendor themselves like Azure Site Recovery, to application specific solutions like SQL Server Always On Availability Groups, to third party solutions like SIOS DataKeeper that protect a wide range of applications running on both Windows and Linux.
Having a disaster recovery strategy that is wholly dependent on a single cloud provider leaves you susceptible to a scenario that might impact multiple regions within a single cloud. Multi-datacenter or multi-region disasters are not likely. However, as we saw with this recent outage and the Azure outage last fall, even if a failure is local to a single datacenter, the impact can be wide reaching across multiple datacenters or even regions within a cloud. To minimize your risks, may want to consider a multi-cloud or hybrid cloud scenario where your disaster recovery site resides outside of your primary cloud platform.
The cloud is just as susceptible to outages as your own datacenter. You must take steps to prepare for disasters. I suggest you start by looking at your most business critical apps first. What would you do if they were offline and the cloud portal to manage them was not even available? Could you recover? Would you meet your RTO and RPO objectives? If not, maybe it is time to re-evaluate your DR strategy.
“By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.”
I just noticed today that there is a new blade in the Azure portal when creating a new SQL Server virtual machine. I’ve been looking for an announcement regarding this new Azure portal experience, but I haven’t found one yet. This feature wasn’t available when I took the screen shots for my last post on creating a SQL Server 2008 R2 FCI in Azure on April 19th, so it must be relatively new.
Most of the settings are pretty self explanatory. Under Security and Networking you can specify the port you want SQL to listen on. It also appears as if the Azure Security Group will be updated to allow different levels of access to the SQL instance: Local, Private or Public. Authentication options are also exposed in this new SQL Server settings blade.
The rest of the features include licensing, patching and backup options. In addition, if you are deploying the Enterprise Edition of SQL Server 2016 or later you also have the option to enable SQL Server R Services for advanced analytics.
All of those options are welcome additions to the Azure portal experience when provisioning a new SQL Server instance. I’m sure the seasoned DBA probably has a list of a few dozen other options they would like to tweak before a SQL Server deployment, but this is certainly a step in the right direction.
Storage Configuration Options
The most interesting new feature I have found on this blade is the Storage Configuration option.
When you click on Change Configuration, you get the following blade.
As you slide the IOPS slider to the right you will see the number of data disks increase, the Storage Size increase, and the Throughput increase. You will be limited to the max number of IOPS and disks supported by that instance size. You see in the screenshot below I am able to go as high as 80,000 IOPS when provisioning storage for a Standard E64-16s_v3 instance.
There is also a “Storage optimization” option. I haven’t tried all the different combinations to know exactly what the Storage optimization setting does. If you know how the different options change the storage configuration, leave me a comment, or we will just wait for the official documentation to be released.
For my test, I provisioned a Standard DS13 v2 instance and maxed out the IOPS at 25600, the max IOPS for that instance size. I also optimized the storage for Transactional processing.
I found that when this instance was provisioned, six P30 premium disk were attached to the instance. This makes sense, since each P30 delivers 5000 IOPS, so it would take at least six of them to deliver the 25,600 IOPS requested. This also increased the Storage Size to 6 TB, since each P30 gives you one 1 TB of storage space. The Read-only host caching was also enabled on these disks.
When I logged in to the instance to see what Azure had done with those disk I found that they had done exactly what I would have done; they created a single Storage Pool with the six P30 disks and created a Simple (aka, RAID 0) Storage Space and provisioned a single 6 TB F:\ drive.
I have found this storage optimization is not available in every Azure Marketplace offering. For example, if you are moving SQL Server 2008 R2 to Azure for the extended security updates you will find that this storage optimization in not available in the SQL2008R2/Windows Server 2008 R2 Azure Marketplace image. Of course, Storage Spaces was not introduced until Windows Server 2012, so that makes sense. I did verify that this option is available with the SQL Server 2012 SP4 on Windows Server 2012 R2 Azure Marketplace offering.
There is a minor inconvenience however. In addition to adding this new Storage configuration option on SQL Server settings blade, they also removed the option to add Data Disks on the Disks blade. So if I wanted to provision additional storage without creating a Storage Space, I would have to create the instance first and then come back and add Data disks after it the virtual machine is provisioned.
All of the SQL Server configuration options in this new Azure blade are welcome additions. I would love to see the list tunable settings grow. Information text should include guidance on current best practices for each tunable.
What SQL Server or Windows OS tunables would you like to see exposed as part of the provisioning process to make your life as a DBA easier? Not only would these tunables make your life easier, but they would also make the junior DBA look like a season pro by guiding them through all the current SQL Server configuration best practices.
I think the new Storage configuration option is probably the most compelling new addition. Prior to the Storage configuration wizard, users had to be aware of the limits of their instance size, the limits of the storage they were adding, and have the wherewithal to stripe together multiple disks in a Simple Storage Space to get the maximum IOPS. A few years ago I put together a simple Azure Storage Calculator to help people make these decisions. My calculator is currently outdated, but this new Storage configuration option may make it obsolete anyway.
I would love to see this Storage configuration wizard included as a standard offering in the Disks blade of every Windows instance type, rather than just the SQL Server instances. I would let the user choose to use the new Storage configuration “Wizard” experience, or the “Classic” experience where you manually add and manage storage.
If you are like me and were unable to get away from the office to attend Microsoft Build 2019 you will be glad to know that Microsoft has published all the sessions and are available online at no charge.
I’m more of an infrastructure guy, so some of the more interesting announcements to me were the following.
Azure VMware Solutions is now generally available – I guess if I was heavily invested in VMware and was looking to expand into Azure this announcement would certainly open up some interesting possibilities. It looks like if I use a bare-metal instance or dedicated instance I can basically have an ESX host running in Azure. I guess if you are doing a hybrid-cloud deployment and want to easily move workloads back and forth between on-prem and Azure his makes sense. If this excites you leave me a comment telling me why.
Just two years ago I would talk to customers and this skill set was non-existent, or really just something the largest IT consultants or cloud providers had any experience in. Over the past year I have seen this skill set become more common with the customers I work with and is often the preferred deployment method. The IaS technology has also matured over that period.
I predict that if you don’t already manage your cloud deployment with IaC you will be in the near future. I’m hopeful that this new offering from Microsoft could be a great intro to those IT professionals looking to gain some IaC experience and knowledge. After I have had a look at it I’ll post a follow-up article.
If you are deploying SQL Server in Azure, or any Cloud platform for that matter, instead of just provisioning storage like you did for your on-premises deployments for many years, you may consider that storage in the Azure isn’t exactly like the storage you may have had access to on-premises. Some traditional “best practices” may wind up costing you additional money and give you less than optimal performance, all while not providing you any of the intended benefits. Much of what I am about to discuss is also described in Performance Guidelines for Azure in SQL Server Virtual Machines.
I’m not here to tell you that you must use UltraSSD, Premium Storage, or any other disk type. You just need to be aware that you have options, and what each disk type brings to the table. Of course, like anything else in the cloud, the more money you spend, the more power, speed, throughput, etc., you will achieve. The trick is finding the optimal configuration so that you spend just enough to achieve the desired results.
Size DOES Matters
Like many things in the cloud, certain specs are tied together. For servers if you want more RAM you often get more CPU, even if you didn’t NEED more CPU. For storage, IOPS, throughput and size are all tied together. If you want more IOPS, you need a bigger disk. If you need more space, you also get more IOPS. Of course you can jump between storage classes to circumvent that to some extent, but it still holds true that if you need more IOPS, you also get more space on any of the different storage types.
The size of your virtual machine instance also matters. Regardless of what storage configuration you eventually go with, the overall throughput will be capped at whatever the instance size allows. So once again, you may need to pay for more RAM and CPU than you need, just to achieve your desired storage performance. Make sure you understand what your instance size can support in terms of max IOPS and MBps throughput. Many times the instance size will turn out to be the bottleneck in a perceived storage performance problem in Azure.
Use RAID 0
RAID 0 is traditionally the 3rd rail of storage configuration options. Although it provides the best combination of performance and storage utilization of any RAID option, it does so at the risk of a catastrophic failure. If just a single disk in a RAID 0 stripe set should fail, the entire stripe set fails. So traditionally RAID 0 is only used in scenarios where data loss is acceptable and high performance is desirable.
However, in Azure software RAID 0 is desirable and even recommended in many situations. How can we get away with RAID 0 in Azure? The answer is easy. Each disk you present to an Azure virtual machine instance already has triple redundancy on the backend, meaning you would need to have multiple failures before you would lose your stripe set. By using RAID 0, you can combine multiple disks and the overall performance of the combined stripe set will increase by 100% for each additional disk you add to the stripe set.
So for example, if you had a requirement of 10,000 IOPS, you might think that you need UltraSSD since Premium Storage maxes out at 7,500 IOPS with a P50. However, if you put two P50s in a RAID 0, you now have the potential to achieve up to 15,000 IOPS, assuming you are running a Standard_F16s_v2 or similarly large instance size that supports that many IOPS.
Traditionally log and data files would reside on different physical disks. Log files tend to have a lot of write activity and data files tend to have more read activity, so sometimes storage would be optimized based on those characteristics. It was also desirable to keep log and data files on different disks for recovery purposes. If you should lose one or the other, with a proper backup strategy in place you could recover your database with no data loss.
With cloud based storage, the likelihood of losing just a single volume is EXTREMELY low. If by chance you lose storage, it is likely your entire storage cluster, along with the triple redundancy, went to lunch. So while it may feel right to put logs in E:\ logs and data in F:\data, you really are doing yourself a disservice. For example, if you provision a P20 for logs and a P20 for data, each volume will be 512 GiB in size and capped at 2,300 IOPS. And just think, you may not need all that size for log files, but it might not give you much room to grow for your data files, which will eventually require moving to a more expensive P30 just for the extra space.
Wouldn’t it be much nicer to simply stripe those two volumes together into a nice large 1 TB volume that supports 4,600 IOPS? By doing that both the log and data files can take advantage of the increased IOPS and you have also just optimized your storage utilization and decreased your cloud storage cost by putting off the move to a P30 disk for your data file.
The same holds true files and filegroups. Really think hard about what you are doing and whether it still makes sense once you move to the cloud. What makes sense might be counter intuitive to what you have done in the past. When in doubt, follow the KISS rule, Keep It Simple Stupid! The beauty of the cloud is you can always add more storage, increase instance size, or do whatever it takes to optimize performance vs. cost.
What to do about TempDB
Use the local SSD, aka, the D: drive. The D drive is going to be the best location for your tempdb. Because it is a local drive the data is considered “temporary”, meaning it can be lost if a server is moved, rebooted, etc. That’s okay, tempdb is recreated each time SQL starts anyway. The local SSD is going to be fast and have low latency, but because it is local the reads and writes to it do not contribute to the overall storage IOPS limit of the instance size, so effectively it is FREE IOPS, so why not take advantage? If you are building a SANless SQL Server FCI with SIOS DataKeeper, be sure to create a non-mirrored volume resource of the D drive so you don’t needlessly replicate TempDB.
Mount Points Become Obsolete
Mount Points are commonly used in SQL Server FCI configurations when multiple instances of SQL Server are installed on the same Windows Cluster. This reduces the overall cost of SQL Server licenses and can help save cost by driving higher server utilization. As we discussed in the past, typically there might be five or more drives associated with each SQL Server instance. If each of those drives had to consume a drive letter you would run out of letters in just about three to four instances. So instead of giving each drive a letter, mount points were used so that each instance could just be serviced by a single drive letter, the root drive. The root drive has mount points that map to separate physical disks that don’t have drive letters.
However, as we discussed above, the concept of using a bunch of individual disks really doesn’t make a lot of sense in the cloud, hence mount points become obsolete in the cloud. Instead, create a RAID 0 stripe we as described and each clustered instance SQL Server will simply have its own individual volume that is optimised for space, performance and cost. This solves the problem of running out of drive letters and gives you much better storage utilization and performance while also reducing the cost of your cloud storage.
This post is meant as a jumping off point, not a definitive guide. The main point of the post is to get you thinking differently about cloud and storage as it pertains to running SQL Server. Don’t simply take what you did on-premise and recreate it in the cloud, that will almost always result in less than optimal performance and a much larger storage bill than necessary.
On July 9, 2019, support for SQL Server 2008 and 2008 R2 will end. That means the end of regular security updates. However, if you move those SQL Server instances to Azure, Microsoft will give you three years of Extended Security Updates at no additional charge. If you are currently running SQL Server 2008/2008 R2 and you are unable to update to a later version of SQL Server before the July 9th deadline, you will want to take advantage of this offer rather than running the risk of facing a future security vulnerability. An unpatched instance of SQL Server could lead to data loss, downtime or a devastating data breach.
One of the challenges you will face when running SQL Server 2008/2008 R2 in Azure is ensuring high availability. On premises you may be running a SQL Server Failover Cluster (FCI) instance for high availability, or possibly you are running SQL Server in a virtual machine and are relying on VMware HA or a Hyper-V cluster for availability. When moving to Azure, none of those options are available. Downtime in Azure is a very real possibility that you must take steps to mitigate.
In order to mitigate the possibility of downtime and qualify for Azure’s 99.95% or 99.99% SLA, you have to leverage SIOS DataKeeper. DataKeeper overcomes Azure’s lack of shared storage and allows you to build a SQL Server FCI in Azure that leverages the locally attached storage on each instance. SIOS DataKeeper not only supports SQL Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 as documented in this guide, it supports any version of Windows Server, from 2008 R2 through Windows Server 2019 and any version of SQL Server from from SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2019.
This guide will walk through the process of creating a two-node SQL Server 2008 R2 Failover Cluster Instance (FCI) in Azure, running on Windows Server 2008 R2. Although SIOS DataKeeper also supports clusters that span Availability Zones or Regions, this guide assumes each node resides in the same Azure Region, but different Fault Domains. SIOS DataKeeper will be used in place of the shared storage normally required to create a SQL Server 2008 R2 FCI.
Active Directory This guide assumes you have an existing Active Directory Domain. You can manage your own Domain Controllers or use Azure Active Directory Domain Services. For this tutorial we will connect to a domain called contoso.local. Of course you will connect to your own domain when following this tutorial.
Open Firewall Ports – SQL Server:1433 for Default Instance – Load Balancer Health Probe: 59999 – DataKeeper: these firewall rules are added to the Windows host based firewall automatically during installation. For details on which ports are opened consult the SIOS documentation. – Keep in mind, if you have any network based security in place that blocks ports between the cluster nodes you will need to account for these ports there as well.
DataKeeper Service Account Create a Domain account. We will specify this account when we install DataKeeper. This account will need to be added to the Local Administrators group on each node of the cluster.
Create the first SQL Server Instance in Azure
This guide will leverage the SQL Server 2008R2SP3 on Windows Server 2008R2 image that is published in the Azure Marketplace.
When you provision the first instance you will have to create a new Availability Set. During this process be sure to increase the number of Fault Domains to 3. This allows the two cluster nodes and the file share witness each to reside in their own Fault Domain.
If you don’t already have a virtual network configured, allow the creation wizard to create a new one for you.
Once the instance is created, go in to the IP configurations and make the Private IP address static. This is required for SIOS DataKeeper and is best practice for clustered instances.
Make sure that your virtual network is configured to set the DNS server to be a local Windows AD controller to ensure you will be able to join the domain in a later step.
After the virtual machines are provisioned, add at least two additional disks to each instance. Premium or Ultra SSD are recommended. Disable caching on the disks used for the SQL log files. Enable read-only caching on the disk used for the SQL data files. Refer to Performance guidelines for SQL Server in Azure Virtual Machines for additional information on storage best practices.
Create the 2nd SQL Server Instance in Azure
Follow the same steps as above, except be sure to place this instance in the same virtual network and Availability Set that you created with the 1st instance.
Create a File Share Witness (FSW) Instance
In order for the Windows Server Failover Cluster (WSFC) to work optimally you are required to create another Windows Server instance and place it in the same Availability Set as the SQL Server instances. By placing it in the same Availability Set you ensure that each cluster node and the FSW reside in different Fault Domains, ensuring your cluster stays on line should an entire Fault Domain go off line. This instances does not require SQL Server, it can be a simple Windows Server as all it needs to do is host a simple file share.
This instance will host the file share witness required by WSFC. This instance does not need to be the same size, nor does it require any additional disks to be attached. It’s only purpose is to host a simple file share. It can in fact be used for other purposes. In my lab environment my FSW is also my domain controller.
Uninstall SQL Server 2008 R2
Each of the two SQL Server instances provisioned already have SQL Server 2008 R2 installed on them. However, they are installed as standalone SQL Server instances, not clustered instances. SQL Server must be uninstalled from each of these instances before we can install the cluster instance. The easiest way to do that is to run the SQL Setup as shown below.
When you run setup.exe /Action-RunDiscovery you will see everything that is preinstalled
Running setup.exe /Action=Uninstall /FEATURES=SQL,AS,RS,IS,Tools /INSTANCENAME=MSSQLSERVER kicks off the uninstall process
Running setup.exe /Action-RunDiscovery confirms the uninstallation completed
Run this uninstallation process again on the 2nd instance.
Add instances to the Domain
All three of these instances will need to be added to a Windows Domain. As mentioned in the Prerequisites section, you must have access to join an existing Windows Active Directory. In our case, we are joining a domain called contoso.local.
Add Windows Failover Clustering Feature
The Failover Clustering Feature needs to be added to the two SQL Server instances
Install Convenience Rollup Update for Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1
There is a critical update ( kb2854082) that is required in order to configure a Windows Server 2008 R2 instance in Azure. That update and many more are included in the Convenience Rollup Update for Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1. Install this update on each of the two SQL Server instances.
Format the Storage
The additional disks that were attached when the two SQL Server instances were provisioned need to be formatted. Do the following for each volume on each instance.
Your report will contain WARNINGS about Storage and Networking. You can ignore those warnings as we know there are no shared disks and only a single network connection exists between the servers. You may also receive a warning about network binding order which can also be ignored. If you encounter any ERRORS you must address those before you continue.
Error trying to run Cluster Validation?
I have encountered this error on a few occasions and I’m still trying to sort out under what conditions this occurs. Occasionally you will find that test-cluster fails to run as described in the forum post.
Unable to Validate a Cluster Configuration. The operation has failed. The action validate a configuration did not complete
There is an error in XML document (5, 73).
Attempt by method
Microsoft.Xml.Serialzation.GeneratedAssembly.XmlSerialzationReaderClusterPrep.Config.Read4_As...Bolean) to access method
If this happens to you, I have found the following fix recommended in the forum post works for me.
Inside C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0 make a copy of powershell_ise.exe.config file (make a copy inside C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0)- rename it to powershell.exe.config
Open it with notepad- delete current config line and paste:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
- save and run test-cluster
While this fix will allow you to run test-cluster from Powershell, I have found that running Validate through the GUI still throws an error, even with this fix. I have a query in to Microsoft to see if they have a solution, but for now if you need to run cluster Validation you may have to use Test-Cluster in Powershell.
Create the Cluster
Best practices for creating a cluster in Azure would be to use Powershell to create a cluster, specifying a static IP address. Powershell allows us to specify a Static IP Address, whereas the GUI method does not. Unfortunately, Azure’s implementation of DHCP does not work well with WSFC, so if you use the GUI method you will wind up with a duplicate IP address as the Cluster IP Address that will need to be fixed before the cluster is usable.
However, what I have found is that the typical New-Cluster powershell command with the -StaticAddress command doesn’t work. To avoid the problem of the duplicate IP address, we have to resort to the cluster.exe utility and run the following command.
Next we need to add the File Share Witness. On the 3rd server we provisioned as the FSW, create a folder and share it as shown below. You will need to grant the Cluster Name Object (CNO) read/write permissions at both the Share and Security levels as shown below.
Once the share is created, run the Configure Cluster Quorum wizard on one of the cluster nodes and follow the steps illustrated below.
Install DataKeeper on each of the two SQL Server cluster nodes as shown below.
This is where we will specify the Domain account we added to each of the local Domain Administrators group.
Once DataKeeper is installed on each of the two cluster nodes you are ready to configure DataKeeper.
NOTE – The most common error encountered in the following steps is security related, most often by pre-existing Azure Security groups blocking required ports. Please refer to the SIOS documentation to ensure the servers can communicate over the required ports.
First you must connect to each of the two nodes.
If everything is configured properly, you should then see the following in the Server Overview report.
Next, create a New Job and follow the steps illustrated below
Choose Yes here to register the DataKeeper Volume resource in Available Storage
Complete the above steps for each of the volumes. Once you are finished, you should see the following in the WSFC UI.
You are now ready to install SQL Server into the cluster.
NOTE – At this point the replicated volume is only accessible on the node that is currently hosting Available Storage. That is expected, so don’t worry!
Install SQL Server on the first node
If you want to script the installation, I have included the example below of a scripted cluster installation of SQL Server 2008 R2 into the first node of cluster. The script to add a node to existing cluster is found further down in the guide.
If you prefer to use the GUI, just follow along with the screenshots below.
On the first node, run the SQL Server setup.
Choose New SQL Server Failover Cluster Installation and follow the steps as illustrated.
Choose only the options you need.
Please note, this document assumes you are using the Default instance of SQL Server. If you use a Named Instance you need to make sure you lock down the port that it listens on, and use that port later on when you configure the load balancer. You also will need to create a load balancer rule for the SQL Server Browser Service (UDP 1434) in order to connect to a Named Instance. Neither of those two requirements are covered in this guide, but if you require a Named Instance it will work if you do those two additional steps.
Here you will need to specify an unused IP address
Go to the Data Directories tab and relocate data and log files. At the end of this guide we talk about relocating tempdb to a non-mirrored DataKeeper Volume for optimal performance. For now, just keep it on one of the clustered disks.
Install SQL Server on the second node
Below is an example of the command you can run to add an additional SQL Server 2008 R2 node into an existing cluster.
If you prefer using the GUI, follow along with the following screenshots.
Run the SQL Server setup again on the second node and choose Add node to a SQL Server Failover Cluster.
Congratulations, you are almost done! However, due to Azure’s lack of support for gratuitous ARP, we will need to configure an Internal Load Balancer (ILB) to assist with client redirection as shown in the following steps.
Update the SQL Cluster IP Address
In order for the ILB to function properly, you must run run the following command from one of the cluster nodes. It SQL Cluster IP enables the SQL Cluster IP address to respond to the ILB health probe while also setting the subnet mask to 255.255.255.255 in order to avoid IP address conflicts with the health probe.
cluster res <IPResourceName> /priv enabledhcp=0 address=<ILBIP> probeport=59999 subnetmask=255.255.255.255
NOTE – I don’t know if it is a fluke, but on occasion I have run this command and it looks like it runs, but it doesn’t complete the job and I have to run it again. The way I can tell if it worked is by looking at the Subnet Mask of the SQL Server IP Resource, if it is not 255.255.255.255 then you know it didn’t run successfully. It may simple be a GUI refresh issue, so you can also try restarting the cluster GUI to verify the subnet mask was updated.
After it runs successfully, take the resource offline and bring it back online for the changes to take effect.
Create the Load Balancer
The final step is to create the load balancer. In this case we are assuming you are running the Default Instance of SQL Server, listening on port 1433.
The Private IP Address you define when you Create the load balancer will be the exact same address your SQL Server FCI uses.
Add just the two SQL Server instances to the backend pool. Do NOT add the FSW to the backend pool.
In this load balancing rule you must enable Floating IP
Validate the Cluster
Before you continue, run cluster validation one more time. The Cluster Validation report should return just the same network and storage warnings that it did the first time you ran it. Assuming there are no new errors or warnings, your cluster is configured correctly.
Test the Cluster
The most simple test is to open SQL Server Management Studio on the passive node and connect to the cluster. If you are able to connect, congratulations, you did everything correct! If you can’t connect don’t fear, you wouldn’t be the first person to make a mistake. I wrote a blog article to help troubleshoot the issue. Managing the cluster is exactly the same as managing a traditional shared storage cluster. Everything is controlled through Failover Cluster Manager.
Optional – Relocate Tempdb
For optimal performance it would be advisable to move tempdb to the local, non replicated, SSD. However, SQL Server 2008 R2 requires tempdb to be on a clustered disk. SIOS has a solution called a Non-Mirrored Volume Resource which addresses this issue. It would be advisable to create a non-mirrored volume resource of the local SSD drive and move tempdb there. However, the local SSD drive is non-persistent, so you must take care to ensure the folder holding tempdb and the permissions on that folder are recreated each time the server reboots.
After you create the Non-Mirrored Volume Resource of the local SSD, follow the steps in this article to relocate tempdb. The startup script described in that article must be added to each cluster node.
For More Information
As always, if you have questions or comments you can leave them in the comment section below or reach me on Twitter @daveberm
The topic of mixing SQL Server Failover Cluster Instances (FCI) with Always On Availability Groups (AG) is pretty well documented. However, most of the available documentation documents configurations that assume the SQL Server FCI portion of the solution utilizes shared storage. What if I want to build a SANless SQL Server FCI using Storage Spaces Direct (S2D), can I still add a SQL Server AG to the mix? Unfortunately, the answer to this question is no. As of today, this combination of S2D based SQL Server FCI and Always On AG is not supported. I previously blogged about this S2D limitation here.
However, the good news is you CAN build a SANless SQL Server FCI with SIOS DataKeeper and still leverage Always On AG for things like readable secondaries. You still have to abide by the same rules that apply when mixing traditional SAN based SQL Server FCI and Always On AGs, but other than that it is exactly the same….mostly.
DataKeeper Synchronous replication is commonly used between nodes in the same data center or cloud region, but you may want to replicate asynchronously to an additional node in a different region for disaster recovery. In this case, if you ever do have to bring the DR node online after an unexpected failure, you will have to scrap the Always On AG configurations and reconfigure them. This requirement is very similar to to what Microsoft published here in regards to restoring asynchronous snapshots of SQL Server Always On AGs running inside VMs.
Essentially, a SANLess SQL Server FCI w/DataKeeper looks like a single instance of SQL Server as far as the Always On Availability Group Wizard is concerned. The configuration of the Always On AG is exactly the same as if you were creating just an Always On AG between two Standalone (non-clustered) SQL Server instances.
The real confusion arise in the fact that in this configuration all the servers reside in the same failover cluster, but the SQL Server FCI is only configured to run only on the cluster nodes where SQL Server was installed as a Clustered SQL Server Instance. The other nodes are in the same cluster, but SQL is installed on those nodes as a Standalone SQL Server Instance, not a Clustered Instance. It’s a bit confusing, but what is happening is that Always On AG’s leverage the WSFC quorum model and listeners, so all the AG Replicas need to reside in the same WSFC, even though they typically do not run clustered instances of SQL Server. If you are completely confused that is okay, most people are confused when they first try to wrap their head around this hybrid configuration.
The real benefit in a configuration like this is that a SQL Server FCI can be a better and more cost effective (more on this later*) HA solution than Always On AG in many circumstances, but it lacks the ability to offer a readable secondary replica. Adding an Always On AG readable secondary replica becomes a viable option to address this need. And using SIOS DataKeeper eliminates the need for a SAN for the SQL Server FCI, which opens up the possibility of configuring SQL Server FCIs where nodes reside in different data center, which also means support for SQL Server FCI’s that span Availability Zones in both Azure and AWS.
Please note that pictured below is just one possible configuration. Multiple FCI cluster nodes, multiple AGs and multiple Replicas are all supported. You are only limited by the limits imposed by your version of SQL Server.
This article seems to document the setup steps pretty well. Of course, instead of shared storage for the SQL FCI, you will use SIOS DataKeeper to build the FCI as I document here.
Basic Availability Groups
As of SQL Server 2016 a scaled down “Basic Availability Groups” became available in SQL Server Standard Edition, making this configuration possible even in SQL Server Standard Edition. Basic AGs are limited to a single database per Availability Group, a Single Replica (2-nodes). However, they do not support a readable secondary replica so their use cases in this hybrid configuration are very limited.
Distributed Availability Groups
Distributed AGs were introduced in SQL Server 2016 are also supported in this hybrid configuration. Distributed AGs are very similar to regular AGs, but the Replicas do not need to reside in the same cluster, or even in the same Windows Domain. Microsoft documents the the main use cases of Distributed Availability Groups as follows:
Disaster recovery and easier multi-site configurations
Migration to new hardware or configurations, which might include using new hardware or changing the underlying operating systems
Increasing the number of readable replicas beyond eight in a single availability group by spanning multiple availability groups
If you like the idea of SQL Server FCIs for high availability, but want the flexibility of read-only secondary replicas, this hybrid solution might just be the thing you are looking for. Traditional SAN baseds SQL Server FCIs, and even Storage Spaces Direct (S2D) based FCIs, limit you to a single data center. SIOS DataKeeper frees you from the limits of your SAN and enables configurations such as SQL Server FCI that span Availability Zones or Cloud Regions. It also eliminates the reliance on the SAN, allowing you to leverage locally attached high speed storage devices without giving up your SQL Server FCI.
* How to Save Money
Earlier I promised I would tell you how to save money by doing this all with SQL Server Standard Edition. If you can live with readable replicas that are point in time based snapshots, you can skip Always On AGs completely and just use the SIOS DataKeeper target side snapshot feature to periodically take an application consistent snapshot of the volumes on the target server without impacting ongoing replication or availability. Here’s how…
Create a 2-node SQL Server FCI with SQL Server Standard Edition and save a boatload of money on SQL licenses, but yet still replicate the data to a 3rd node outside the cluster for reporting or DR purposes. If you take a snapshot of the volumes on this third server these snapshots are read-right accessible, so you can mount those databases from a standalone instance of SQL Server to run month end reports, copy to archives, or you might even want to use those snapshot to quickly and easily update your QA and Test/Dev environments with the latest SQL data.
I hope you found this helpful and informative. As always, if you have questions, add them here or reach me on Twitter @daveberm